As of March 14, the Ontario Animal Health Laboratory (AHL) has diagnosed swine deltacoronavirus (SDCV) in samples from six Ontario pig farms. This pathogen was detected as a result of follow up testing on farms with clinical signs of vomiting and diarrhea, but that tested negative for transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Samples of porcine plasma have also tested positive for SDCV at AHL and Iowa State University. The samples submitted were from the same batch that tested positive for PEDV in February 2014.
These are the first confirmed cases of SDCV in Canada.
SDCV was initially detected in pigs in Hong Kong in 2012. In February, the U.S. Department of Agriculture along with the Ohio Department of Agriculture issued a press release indicating that SDCV had been detected in swine manure at four farms in Ohio. These farms had pigs exhibiting clinical signs similar to PEDV, and three of the four farms had tested positive for PEDV as well as SDCV.
In light of the U.S. findings, AHL developed a PCR test for SDCV, and began testing for the virus in samples from farms that had clinical signs in pigs, yet tested negative for PEDV and TGE.
SDCV infection is clinically similar to, but distinct from, PEDV and TGE. It causes diarrhea and vomiting in all age groups and mortality in nursing pigs. Mortality rates appear to be lower than in cases of PEDV.
SDCV is not a risk to human health or to other animals, nor is it a food safety risk.