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Articles from 2015 In January


Ingredient market prices, 2/2/15

Ingredient market prices, 2/2/15

The following prices, which include delivery, were obtained Jan. 28 from feed and grain vendors in the U.S. and Canada. The prices represent current trading values but are not guaranteed. Second column shows the amount of change since the previous week. Prices of certain products can vary depending on the processing method used. N-Nominal. N/A-Price not available.

OILSEED PRODUCTS

 

 

(dollars per ton)

 

 

Soybean meal

 

 

(high-protein)

 

 

Atlanta

440.00

-

Boston

N/A

-

Buffalo

416.00

9.00

Chicago

372.00

6.00

Delmarva

N/A

-

Fayetteville NC

450.00

-

Ft. Worth

399.00

3.00

Kansas City

355.00

-

Los Angeles

405.00

8.00

Memphis

N/A

-

Minneapolis

344.00

-1.00

Okeechobee

470.00

-

Portland

408.30

0.05

San Francisco

405.00

8.00

Twin Falls

421.00

10.00

Soybean meal

 

 

(low-protein)

 

 

Atlanta

430.00

-

Boston

N/A

-

Buffalo

412.00

9.00

Chicago

360.00

6.00

Delmarva

N/A

-

Fayetteville NC

440.00

-

Ft. Worth

N/A

-

Kansas City

355.00

-

Los Angeles

382.00

7.00

Memphis

N/A

-

Minneapolis

N/A

-

Okeechobee

460.00

-

Portland

N/A

-

San Francisco

382.00

7.00

Soybean hulls

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Buffalo*

200.00

5.00

Chicago

143.00

-

Fayetteville, NC

N/A

-

Ft. Worth*

185.00

-

Los Angeles

178.00

-

Minneapolis

110.00

-

Okeechobee

N/A

-

San Francisco

178.00

-

Twin Falls

180.00

-

* unpelleted

 

 

Whole cottonseed

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Buffalo

308.00

-

Chicago

295.00

-3.00

Delmarva

N/A

-

Fayetteville NC

N/A

-

Ft. Worth

290.00

-

Los Angeles

N/A

-

Lubbock

270.00

-5.00

Memphis

260.00

2.00

Okeechobee

N/A

-

Portland

380.00

2.50

San Francisco

379.00

2.00

Twin Falls

375.00

-

Cottonseed meal

 

 

Atlanta

320.00

-

Chicago

340.00

-

Delmarva

320.00

-

Fayetteville NC

320.00

-

Ft. Worth

355.00

-5.00

Kansas City

345.00

-

Los Angeles

N/A

-

Lubbock

330.00

-5.00

Memphis

300.00

-

Okeechobee

354.00

-

San Francisco

325.00

4.00

Cottonseed hulls

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Chicago

210.00

-

Fayetteville NC

N/A

-

Ft. Worth

210.00

-10.00

Okeechobee

N/A

-

Los Angeles

N/A

-

Lubbock

170.00

-20.00

San Francisco

N/A

-

Canola meal

 

 

Buffalo

327.00

27.00

Minneapolis

269.50

-13.30

Los Angeles

306.00

-4.00

Montreal

278.00

-

Portland

302.30

2.55

San Francisco

306.00

-4.00

Twin Falls

320.00

5.00

Vancouver

270.00

-

Sunflower seed meal

 

 

Fargo

250.00

-

Minneapolis

230.00

-10.00

Linseed  meal

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Chicago

270.00

-5.00

Fargo

250.00

-

Fayetteville NC

N/A

-

Ft. Worth

286.00

-

Kansas City

340.00

-5.00

Minneapolis

240.00

-10.00

Safflower meal

 

 

Los Angeles

N/A

-

San Francisco

194.00

-1.00

ANIMAL BYPRODUCTS

 

 

(dollars per ton)

 

 

Meat and bone meal

 

 

(ruminant)

 

 

Buffalo

N/A

-

Chicago

395.00

-18.00

Delmarva

470.00

-

Fayetteville NC

450.00

-

Ft. Worth

390.00

-

Kansas City

370.00

-10.00

Los Angeles

345.00

-15.00

Memphis

440.00

-

Minneapolis

390.00

-

Portland

350.00

-15.00

San Francisco

345.00

-15.00

Meat and bone meal

 

 

(porcine)

 

 

Fayetteville NC

500.00

-

Los Angeles

388.80

-15.80

Memphis

470.00

-

Minneapolis

420.00

-15.00

Flash-dried blood meal

 

 

(ruminant)

 

 

Fayetteville NC

1300.00

-

Los Angeles

1125.00

-100.00

Memphis

1250.00

-

Minneapolis

900.00

-

Flash-dried blood meal

 

 

(porcine)

 

 

Fayetteville NC

1350.00

-

Memphis

1325.00

-

Minneapolis

950.00

-

Poultry byproduct meal

 

 

(feed grade)

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Fayetteville NC

400.00

-

Ft. Worth

375.00

-

Kansas City

N/A

-

Los Angeles

471.00

-16.00

Memphis

400.00

-

Poultry byproduct meal

 

 

(pet food grade)

 

 

Memphis

675.00

-

Fayetteville NC

675.00

-

Hydrolized feather meal

 

 

Atlanta

430.00

-

Delmarva

450.00

-

Fayetteville NC

430.00

-

Ft. Worth

470.00

-

Kansas City

540.00

-30.00

Los Angeles

N/A

-

Memphis

430.00

-

Minneapolis

575.00

-25.00

Menhaden fish meal

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Buffalo

N/A

-

Chicago

1750.00

-

Fayetteville NC

N/A

-

Ft. Worth

N/A

-

Kansas City

N/A

-

Memphis

1850.00

-

Minneapolis

1945.00

5.00

Twin Falls

N/A

-

Blended tuna meal

 

 

Los Angeles

N/A

-

San Francisco

N/A

-

Anchovy  meal

 

 

Los Angeles

N/A

-

San Francisco

N/A

-

ANIMAL FAT, GREASE

 

 

(cents per pound)

 

 

Prime Tallow

 

 

Chicago

28.50

-

Ft. Worth

N/A

-

Los Angeles

27.00

-0.25

San Francisco

26.25

-

Yellow grease

 

 

Buffalo

N/A

-

Chicago

28.00

-

Delmarva

N/A

-

Fayetteville NC

28.00

-

Ft. Worth

27.00

-1.00

Kansas City

34.75

-

Los Angeles

26.00

-0.25

Memphis

28.00

-

Minneapolis

24.00

-

San Francisco

25.25

-

Choice white grease

 

 

Chicago

30.00

-

Minneapolis

24.50

-

Bleachable fancy tallow

 

 

Buffalo

N/A

-

Chicago

32.00

-

Ft. Worth

28.00

-1.00

Los Angeles

N/A

-

Minneapolis

28.00

-0.50

San Francisco

N/A

-

Vegetable-animal blend

 

 

Ft. Worth

27.50

-1.00

Los Angeles

25.75

0.38

Minneapolis

25.00

-

San Francisco

25.75

0.38

Poultry grease

 

 

(feed grade)

 

 

Delmarva

24.00

-

Fayetteville NC

27.00

-

Memphis

27.00

-

Poultry grease

 

 

(pet food grade)

 

 

Memphis

33.00

-

Fayetteville NC

33.00

-

GLUTEN, HOMINY

 

 

(dollars per ton)

 

 

Corn gluten meal

 

 

Buffalo

688.00

-5.00

Chicago

675.00

-

Kansas City

735.00

-15.00

Los Angeles

710.00

-

Corn gluten feed

 

 

Buffalo

178.00

-10.00

Chicago

153.00

-

Fayetteville NC

180.00

-5.00

Kansas City

180.00

-10.00

Okeechobee

200.00

-5.00

Twin Falls

N/A

-

Wahpeton

N/A

-

Hominy feed

 

 

Atlanta

150.00

-

Boston

N/A

-

Buffalo

170.00

-

Chicago

108.00

-45.00

Fayetteville NC

N/A

-

Kansas City

100.00

-10.00

Los Angeles

179.00

-

Okeechobee

N/A

-

San Francisco

179.00

-

Twin Falls

185.00

-3.00

BREWERS, DISTILLERS

 

 

(dollars per ton)

 

 

Brewers dried grains

 

 

Chicago

N/A

-

Kansas City

N/A

-

Malt Sprouts

 

 

Chicago

175.00

-

Milwaukee

160.00

-15.00

Winona, Minn

160.00

-15.00

Distillers dried grains

 

 

Atlanta

240.00

-

Boston

N/A

-

Buffalo

205.00

-10.00

Chicago

198.00

8.00

Fayetteville NC

240.00

-

Kansas City

125.00

-5.00

Los Angeles

249.00

-13.00

Minneapolis

160.00

-5.00

Okeechobee

250.00

-

Portland

254.00

-3.00

San Francisco

249.00

-13.00

Twin Falls

250.00

-19.00

Brewers yeast

 

 

(dollars per pound, sacked)

 

 

Chicago

0.75

-

Milwaukee

0.75

-

Minneapolis

0.75

-

ALFALFA

 

 

(dollars per ton)

 

 

Dehydrated pellets

 

 

(17% protein)

 

 

Alfalfa Center

275.00

-

Buffalo

375.00

-

Chicago

355.00

-

Kansas City

300.00

-

Los Angeles

N/A

-

Minneapolis

265.00

-

Toledo

385.00

-

San Francisco

N/A

-

Suncured pellets

 

 

(15% protein)

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Ft. Worth

245.00

-

Kansas City

250.00

-10.00

Los Angeles

N/A

-

Portland

305.00

-

San Francisco

N/A

-

WHEAT MILLFEEDS

 

 

Shorts

 

 

Chicago

160.00

-

Ft. Worth

N/A

-

Los Angeles

193.00

-12.00

Millrun

 

 

Los Angeles

184.00

-9.00

Portland

195.00

-

San Francisco

N/A

-

Twin Falls

155.00

5.00

Bran

 

 

Buffalo

155.00

8.00

Chicago

175.00

-

Los Angeles

188.00

-9.00

Minneapolis

N/A

-

Middlings

 

 

Buffalo

125.00

8.00

Chicago

150.00

-

Fayetteville NC

N/A

-

Ft. Worth

180.00

-20.00

Kansas City

140.00

-

Los Angeles

191.00

-12.00

Memphis

175.00

-15.00

Minneapolis

130.00

8.00

Okeechobee

N/A

-

DAIRY BYPRODUCTS

 

 

(dollars per hundredweight)

 

 

Dried skim milk

 

 

Ft. Worth

98.88

-1.75

Minneapolis

98.88

-1.75

Dried buttermilk

 

 

Ft. Worth

82.25

-5.25

Minneapolis

82.25

-5.25

Whole whey

 

 

Chicago

52.50

-1.00

Ft. Worth

51.50

-1.00

Kansas City

54.50

-

Minneapolis

51.50

-1.00

Whey protein concentrate

 

 

Ft. Worth

113.75

-1.75

Milwaukee

113.75

-1.75

Lactose

 

 

Ft. Worth

31.00

-

Minneapolis

31.00

-

OATS, RICE PRODUCTS

 

 

(dollars per ton)

 

 

Rolled oats

 

 

Chicago

510.00

-

Kansas City

480.00

-20.00

Minneapolis

497.00

-

Crimped oats

 

 

Chicago

430.00

-

Kansas City

355.00

-

Minneapolis

432.00

-

Pulverized oats

 

 

Chicago

150.00

-

Minneapolis

138.00

-

Reground oat feed

 

 

Chicago

87.00

-

Kansas City

65.00

-

Minneapolis

72.00

-

Oats

 

 

(dollars per bushel)

 

 

Buffalo

3.85

-

Minneapolis

3.41

-

Portland*

270.00

-

(*per ton)

 

 

Rice bran

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Ft. Worth

170.00

-5.00

Freeport

N/A

-

Kansas City

140.00

-4.00

Memphis

N/A

-

San Francisco

180.00

-12.00

Stuttgart, Ark.

N/A

-

Rice millfeeds

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Ft. Worth

105.00

-5.00

Freeport

N/A

-

Kansas City

105.00

-5.00

Memphis

N/A

-

Stuttgart, Ark.

N/A

-

Rice hulls

 

 

Ft. Worth

70.00

-

Kansas City

70.00

-5.00

DRIED PULP

 

 

(dollars per ton)

 

 

Citrus pulp pellets

 

 

Atlanta

210.00

-

Fayetteville NC

220.00

-

Okeechobee

190.00

-

Los Angeles*

N/A

-

*(sold wet)

 

 

Beet pulp pellets

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Boise

N/A

-

Chicago

220.00

-

Fayetteville NC

N/A

-

Kansas City

480.00

-

Minneapolis

160.00

-

Portland

245.00

-10.00

Saginaw

175.00

-

Beet pulp shreds

 

 

Mpls (sacked)

340.00

-

Los Angeles*

195.00

-9.00

San Francisco

N/A

-

Twin Falls

N/A

-

*bulk, wet

 

 

GRAINS

 

 

Barley feed

 

 

Kansas City (bu.)

5.50

-0.05

Los Angeles (cwt)

9.00

-

Portland (ton)

203.50

-

San Francisco (cwt)

9.00

-

Feed wheat

 

 

Atlanta (bu.)

N/A

-

Fayetteville NC (bu.)

N/A

-

Kansas City (bu)

4.79

-0.22

Los Angeles (cwt)

N/A

-

San Francisco (cwt)

N/A

-

Corn

 

 

(dollars per bushel)

 

 

Atlanta

6.26

-

Boston

N/A

-

Buffalo (per ton)

164.00

-6.00

Chicago

3.76

-0.15

Delmarva

4.05

-0.15

Fayetteville NC

5.25

-0.82

Ft. Worth

N/A

-

Kansas City

3.61

-0.15

Los Angeles*

9.60

-0.24

San Fran (rail)*

9.60

-0.24

San Fran (truck)*

N/A

-

Memphis

3.84

-0.19

Minneapolis

3.59

-

Okeechobee

5.48

-0.82

Portland (per ton)

177.25

-3.25

(*per cwt)

 

 

Milo

 

 

(dollars per bushel)

 

 

Atlanta

N/A

-

Fayetteville NC

N/A

-

Ft. Worth

N/A

-

Kansas City

3.73

-0.16

Los Angeles*

11.27

-0.27

Memphis

4.54

-0.14

*(per cwt.)

 

 

Ground grain screenings

 

 

(dollars per ton)

 

 

Ft.  Worth

145.00

-

Kansas City

70.00

-5.00

OTHER

 

 

(dollars per ton)

 

 

Almond hulls

 

 

Los Angeles

180.00

-4.00

San Francisco

155.00

-3.00

Bakery feed

 

 

Atlanta

180.00

-

Buffalo

168.00

-2.00

Fayetteville NC

185.00

-

Memphis

175.00

-

Minneapolis

170.00

-5.00

Feed urea

 

 

Buffalo

N/A

-

Ft. Worth

N/A

-

Los Angeles

N/A

-

Minneapolis

N/A

-

Salt

 

 

Kansas City

58.00

-

Los Angeles

50.00

-

Cane molasses

 

 

Ft. Worth

N/A

-

Houston

152.50

-

Kansas City

190.00

-

Los Angeles

N/A

-

Memphis

N/A

-

Minneapolis

197.50

-

New Orleans

152.50

-

San Francisco

N/A

-

 

Volume:87 Issue:05

Small gain in U.S. cattle herd

Small gain in U.S. cattle herd

 

U.S. cattle producers added 1.3 million head to the nation’s cattle herd over the last year, according to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) recently released cattle inventory report.

On January 1, 2015 the total number of cattle and calves in the U.S. equaled 89.8 million head, up 1% from a year ago.

Factoring in the U.S. cattle inventory is rebounding from a historical low numbers and biological lags in production compared to other species, the small gain marks the first few miles in the expansion journey for the U.S. beef industry.

Furthermore, all cows and heifers that calved totaled 39.0 million with beef cows accounted for 29.7 million head and milk cows at 9.3 million head.

Market analysts had reported that late last summer the beef industry had turn corner and the expansion phase has begun.  This is reflected in the latest NASS figures which reported 4% more replacement heifers – or 5.8 million head- in U.S. cattle herds this year. 

Milk replacement heifers totaled 4.6 million head, increasing only 1% from January 1, 2014.

The 2014 calf crop was estimated at 33.9 million head, up 1% from 2013.

Meanwhile, cattle and calves on feed for slaughter in feedlots penciled at 13.1 million, up 1%.

The combined total of calves under 500lbs., and other heifers and steers over 500lbs. outside of feedlots was 25.2 million, up 1%.

The NASS also reported steers weighing 500lbs. at 15.8 million head and bulls weighing over 500lbs. at 2.1 million head.

Groups ratchet up pressure on West Coast port situation

More than 90 farm and food organizations again called on representatives on both sides of the West Coast port labor dispute to come to the bargaining table to resolve the issue.

Slowdowns by dock workers at the ports in Long Beach, Los Angeles and Oakland, Calif., and in Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., have stranded thousands of containers of farm products over the past several months. Since November, pork prices, for example, have tumbled by 20% in large part because of the port problem, and meat and other perishable products awaiting shipment soon may need to be destroyed or discounted and sold on the domestic market, the National Pork Producers Council said. One estimate has the U.S. meat and poultry industries losing more than $30 million a week.

The American Soybean Assn. said it is "costing the agriculture industry millions of dollars" for every week that the negotiations and slowdowns drag on.

Exports of agricultural products have grown to $144 billion in 2013 from $46 million in 1994, with much of the growth in Asian markets, which are most directly affected by the ports slowdowns.

“Not only is this dispute causing extreme congestion, delays, and uncertainty, it is costing the agriculture industry millions of dollars for every week that the negotiations and slowdowns drag on,” ASA said.

In the open letter, stakeholders urged both the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU) and the Pacific Maritime Association (PMA) to take into account the impact the dispute is having on consumers and to resolve their differences as quickly as possible. Although the ILWU initially agreed to continue sending workers to the ports during the contract negotiations, in November it reneged on that agreement.

The groups also urged the federal government to consider all available remedies to bring the dispute to a rapid end, noting the potentially dire consequences of not reaching an agreement.

“This regrettable situation is having a severe impact on our ability to export agricultural and food products to many of our main export markets,” wrote the groups in the letter. “Inevitably, these overseas customers will look to other sources for their supply of these goods. Similar to what we encountered after ill-advised export embargoes in the past, once lost, a foreign customer can be difficult to recapture.”

Future for beef exports foggy

Future for beef exports foggy

GLOBAL trade dynamics for meat and poultry may add a degree of ambiguity to those markets in 2015.

Jim Robb from the Livestock Marketing Information Center (LMIC) told Feedstuffs that the greatest uncertainty for the cattle market and the entire animal protein segment this year is international trade.

Lackluster pork and chicken exports on the heels of Russia's import sanctions, combined with a strong U.S. dollar and the global economic downturn, may negatively spill over into the beef export complex.

"There are more headwinds in 2015 for the beef sector," Robb said. "The value of the dollar and the slow growth in Asia and Mexico are a concern."

Still, U.S. beef should weather the storm fairly well, as demonstrated in 2014, when year-over-year volumes were essentially unchanged but records for value were smashed.

On the domestic demand front, the U.S. economy is showing signs of growth, which is optimistic for beef demand. However, lower international meat sales this year could result in product flooding the domestic marketplace.

LMIC reported that beef was the only red meat experiencing a positive demand shift at the end of last year. In the third quarter of 2014, the beef demand index was the highest since 2005 — a dramatic improvement that was a little beyond the gain associated with the improving U.S. economy. As a result, this noticeable gain reflected some improvement in consumer preferences for red meats.

Over the next two years, the dramatic price run-up of 2014 will most likely not be repeated. Even so, cow/calf producers will return a nice profit again over the next several years.

Looking ahead, some essential key price drivers to watch will be the U.S. cattle inventory, production trends, competing animal proteins and grain prices, along with the beef trade complex.

At the beginning of 2015, the U.S. cattle herd is still at a low level, but last summer the beef industry clearly turned the growth corner.

Market participants expected the U.S. Department of Agriculture's annual cattle and calf inventory count, released late last Friday, to show the first year-over-year gain in inventory levels since 2007. Robb warned, however, that if an increase occurs, it will only be slight due to biological holdups.

Worth noting is that changes transpired in the dairy calf sector last year. As U.S. veal production radically declined, dairy producers had an economic incentive to place dairy calves into feedlots. According to LMIC's calculations, an additional 210,000 head of dairy steers were placed into U.S. feedlots in 2014 compared to 2013.

Obviously, the heifer retention necessary to support expansion of the U.S. beef herd will continue this year, which will further restrict the number of animals available to fill feedlots and shrink feedlot profit margins as buyers are forced to bid higher for feeders.

In its recent "Livestock, Dairy & Poultry Outlook," USDA said cattle feeders are projected to experience negative returns, with estimated breakeven prices at $165/cwt. for December 2014 and climbing for the first quarter of 2015.

Eventually, packers will be forced to pass the higher prices on to consumers, which explains why USDA's estimate for annual retail beef prices is marginally higher in 2015 than last year.

Meanwhile, LMIC forecasted total cattle slaughter for 2015 to drop 1-4% from last year. Even so, the average dressed carcass weight will most likely continue its upward trend, netting a projected 2015 production decline of 1%.

There is no hiding the fact that chicken and pork will be forces to be reckoned with this year as both sectors are on a fast track to increase production at a time when U.S. cattle supplies remain extremely tight.

Robb has projected U.S. chicken production to increase 4% this year and pork production to also dramatically climb 2-4%.

Although porcine epidemic diarrhea virus is still a concern for the pork industry, Dr. Paul Sundberg of the National Pork Board told the International Production & Processing Expo that increased biosecurity has thus far kept the virus at a lower level than last year.

Although the record grain harvest has increased global stockpiles and lowered feed costs to more affordable levels, the lower costs — especially for corn — are not guaranteed to be long term. Most market analysts anticipate that corn prices will rise slightly going forward.

Overall, LMIC has penciled the price forecast for 2015 fed cattle at $162-165/cwt. (Figure). Likewise, calf and yearling prices are projected to average above 2014 levels, with prices for calves climbing 13% and yearlings up 10%.

Robb anticipates that the highest cattle prices will most likely occur in the first half of 2015. He advised that a strategy of waiting to price calves may not pay off this year.

Future for beef exports foggy

Market roundup

Elsewhere across the livestock complex last week, slumping wholesale beef cutouts hinted at fading beef demand, while increased pork supplies tripped up the hog market.

USDA did not report active cash fed trade in the southern Plains until last Thursday, and trade in other regions was limited. In Kansas, the bulk of the live sales were down $1 from the previous week at $159/cwt.

After dropping for the first few days of the trading week, cattle futures posted a rebound last Wednesday but fell again the next day.

February live cattle futures settled at $153.525/cwt. at Thursday's close, up $3.175 from the previous Friday. Soon-to-expire January feeder cattle futures finished at $212.40/cwt., down $1.30 from the previous week.

Wholesale beef cutout values fell all of last week, with the Choice cutout at $244.59/cwt. and the Select cutout at $238.34/cwt. last Thursday.

Last week's "Cattle on Feed" report fell on deaf ears as USDA reported no really big surprises. The report showed 10.69 million head of cattle in U.S. feedlots with a capacity of 1,000 head or larger on Jan. 1 (Table). December placements into feedlots totaled 1.554 million head, down 8.1% from 2013, while marketings were reported at 1.655 million head.

 

Feedlot inventory

 

2014

2015

2015 as %

Category

-Million head-

of 2014

Jan. 1 inventory

10.590

10.690

101

Dec. marketings

1.736

1.655

95

Dec. placements

1.679

1.544

92

Dec. 1 inventory

10.724

10.873

101

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture.

 

The chatter in the U.S. pork complex is that more pigs are coming, which is pressuring hog prices lower.

Last week, lean hog futures posted a nice rebound at the beginning of the week but closed lower last Thursday at $68.55/cwt., down 75 cents from the previous Friday.

The cash hog trade was also lower last week, with hogs delivered to the eastern Corn Belt at $66.60/cwt. and to the western Corn Belt at $68.55/cwt.

Wholesale pork cutout values were weaker, with loins falling to $88.21/cwt., hams to $62.62/cwt. and bellies to $96.65/cwt.

Volume:87 Issue:05

PEDV stays below epidemic level

PEDV stays below epidemic level

It's still too early to tell whether U.S. can eliminate PEDV or if it will become endemic in swine herd.

PEDV stays below epidemic level
ALTHOUGH it's too early to predict the future regarding porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), Dr. Paul Sundberg of the National Pork Board told attendees at the International Production & Processing Expo last week that more may be known by 2016.

Right now, however, anything can still happen, he warned.

Sundberg said the disease has a rather normal epidemic curve (Figure) and has maintained a lower level of positive accessions despite expectations that numbers would increase during the winter, when PEDV normally thrives.

"As of Jan. 15, we're still below an epidemic threshold that the University of Minnesota sets given the data they have. That's very good news and rather unexpected," he said.

The current status is indicative of two things, Sundberg explained. First, about half of the U.S. sow population was infected, so the U.S. has built some herd immunity. Second, he said better biosecurity and better awareness surrounding a lot of different practices have contributed to the decrease in disease incidence.

While this is good news for now, Sundberg noted that it is too early to tell whether the U.S. can eliminate PEDV or whether the disease will become endemic. "Next year at this time, we may know more," he said.

In 2015, Sundberg said the number-one priority will be sow immunity, but the ability of the virus to survive in manure pits will continue to be researched.

Additionally, Sundberg said there will be more focus on feed interventions rather than feed as a mode of PEDV transmission. While feed systems can be a risk if not managed correctly, post-processing contamination presents the largest risk, he added.

A few years ago, Sundberg pointed out that PEDV was a disease discussed only briefly because it wasn't present in the U.S., but it did emerge.

Now, the swine industry recognizes that monitoring all emerging swine diseases in other countries is crucial as well because the diseases may eventually occur in the U.S.

"We can't expect (the U.S. Department of Agriculture) alone to protect our herds from emerging disease," Sundberg noted, explaining that the industry needs to take more responsibility for non-regulated diseases.

Also, better state/federal/industry response coordination is essential, he added.

Volume:87 Issue:05

Livestock & poultry cash market comparisons, 2/2/15

Livestock & poultry cash market comparisons, 2/2/15

Livestock and meat ($)

Jan. 27

Jan. 21

6 months ago

Year ago

Steers, Choice, carcass, 550-700 lb., cwt., Omaha

247.29

257.19

261.34

231.81

Steers, Choice, 1,050-1,200 lb., cwt. Okla/Texas

160.00

N/A

162.00

N/A

Feeder Steers, 600-700 lb., cwt., Oklahoma City

225.87A

240.25A

244.00A

180.50A

Lean Hogs, Carcass, Iowa-Minn. 167-187 lb.(1)

71.21

74.01

122.16

79.94

Feeder Pigs, 40 lb. National Direct Delivered(2)

85.29

83.40

117.97

98.58

SEW Pigs, 10 lb., National direct delivered (per head)

63.61

66.02

79.09

85.16

Choice Beef, cutout, cwt.

244.59

255.65

263.66

230.75

Pork Loin, 185 lb. 51-52% lean, cutout, cwt.(3)

88.21

92.62

132.74

100.00

Hog Corn Ratio

18.87

19.11

35.53

18.8

Steer Corn Ratio

44.82

44.75

39.88

31.9

Poultry and eggs (cents)

 

 

 

 

Chickens, Grade A, Fresh lb. Chicago

90.46a

96.67a

98.48a

91.96a

Hen Turkeys, Grade A, Frozen, lb., Chicago

99.00Aa

99.00Aa

109.00Aa

99.50Aa

Young Tom Turkeys, Grade A. Frozen lb. Chicago

99.00Aa

99.00Aa

109.50Aa

97.50Aa

Eggs, Grade A, Large, doz., Chicago

119.50

104.50

136.00

125.50

N/A: not available

A: average

 

 

 

(1) Replaces live hogs; live hogs are 0.755 of quote.
(2) Replaces Sioux Falls, 50-60 lbs. (2/26/07)
(3) National FOB plant, replaces national daily carlot.
Livestock, meat, poultry and egg prices from USDA.

 

Volume:87 Issue:05

Grain & ingredient cash market comparisons, 2/2/15

Grain & ingredient cash market comparisons, 2/2/15

Major feed ingredients

Jan. 28

Jan. 21

6 months ago

Year ago

Corn No. 2, Chicago, bu.

 

 

 

 

Processor bid*

3.74A

3.89A

3.78A

4.32A

Terminal bid*

3.65A

3.79A

3.54A

4.17A

Milo, Kansas City, cwt.

6.66

6.94

6.37

7.71

Soybeans, Chicago, bu., processor bid

9.60A

9.74A

6.32A

12.76A

Soybean Meal, 48% Decatur Bid

368.90

362.00A

436.10

481.30A

Cottonseed Meal, Memphis, ton

300.00

300.00

N/A

365.00

Canola meal, Minneapolis, ton

269.50

282.80

N/A

346.80

Linseed Meal, Solvent, Minneapolis

240.00

250.00

270.00

335.00

Meat and Bone Meal, Chicago, ton

395.00

413.00

525.00

460.00

Fish Meal, Menhaden, Atlanta, ton

N/A

N/A

1,250.00

1,125.00

Corn Gluten Meal, 60%, Chicago, ton

675.00

675.00

605.00

665.00

Distillers Dried Grains, Chicago, ton

198.00

190.00

137.00

200.00

17% Dehy. Alfalfa Pellets, KC, ton

300.00

300.00

325.00

355.00

Millfeeds, Midds, Minneapolis, ton

130.00

122.00

100.00

130.00

Molasses, Cane, Houston, ton

152.50

152.50

152.50

150.00

Dried Citrus Pulp, Atlanta, ton

210.00

210.00

232.00

200.00

Whey, Whole, Chicago, cwt.

52.50

53.50

65.87

58.00

Rolled Oats, Minneapolis, ton

497.00

497.00

522.00

542.00

Barley, Los Angeles , cwt.

9.00

9.00

10.55

10.90

Feeding Wheat, Kansas City, bu.

4.79

5.01

5.03

5.65

* Chicago corn and soybean prices for latest and previous week are the middle of the range of to-arrive bids; soybean meal prices are midrange of processor quotes. Chicago corn and soybean prices provided by USDA Market News. Six months, year ago comparisons are all spot cash. Based on prices reported by Feedstuffs' market reporters.

A: average

N/A: not available

 

Volume:87 Issue:05

Coarse-ground corn aids broiler growth

Coarse-ground corn aids broiler growth

*Dr. William A. Dudley-Cash is a poultry and fish nutritionist and has his own consulting firm in Kamuela, Hawaii. To expedite answers to questions concerning this article, please direct inquiries to Feedstuffs, Bottom Line of Nutrition, 7900 International Drive, Suite 650, Bloomington, Minn. 55425, or email [email protected]

RESEARCH has shown that the particle size of feed ingredients has an important effect on intestinal tract development, gizzard function, digesta retention time, nutrient digestibility and, ultimately, live performance of broilers.

Fine-grinding grain requires a lot of power and increases the cost of feed manufacturing. Replacing a portion of the fine-ground grain with coarse grain has the potential to decrease feed manufacturing costs while at the same time improving performance.

Y. Xu et al. of North Carolina State University published a paper on the effect of coarsely ground corn (CC) on the live performance and intestinal development of broilers. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of roller mill CC on broiler performance, gastrointestinal tract development and function, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy and nitrogen and digesta particle size distribution and retention time.

Broiler diets were formulated to meet or exceed the National Research Council's (1994) suggested minimum requirements for broilers. Table 1 shows the ingredient composition and calculated analysis for the starter, grower and finisher diets used in this research. All birds received the same starter diet — in crumble form — from 0 to 14 days of age, without the inclusion of any CC.

The experimental diets were initiated with the grower and finisher diets. In both the grower and finisher, there were three dietary treatments that consisted of CC replacing 0%, 25% or 50% of the corn (fine corn [FC]) in the diet.

The FC and soybean meal were ground with a hammer mill equipped with two 2.4 mm screens. The CC was ground using a two-pair roller mill with a gap setting of a 0% opening (0.15-0.18 mm) on the top pair of rollers and a 100% opening (7.16 mm) on the bottom pair of rollers. The dry ingredients were blended in a double-ribbon mixer to produce the mash. The mash was conditioned at 85 degrees C for 45 seconds and pelleted with a ring die pellet mill. Pellets were cooled with ambient air in a counter-flow cooler.

The starter diet was provided as a crumble, and the grower and finisher diets were fed as pellets, with fines removed by a pellet screener. Particle size distribution was determined by ASAE standard S319.3. The pellet durability index was measured by ASAE standard S269.4.

The 180 Ross 344 x 708 one-day-old male broiler chicks were feather sexed, weighed and randomly distributed among 18 cages, with 10 chicks in each cage. The 18 cages were located in three brooding batteries in an environmentally controlled room.

Each cage (61 cm wide, 46 cm long and 61 cm tall) was randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments, with a total of six replications per treatment. The chicks were given a budget of 0.9 kg, 2.7 kg and 3.6 kg of starter, grower and finisher diet, respectively. Each cage had two nipple drinkers and one feeder. Water and feed were provided ad libitum.

 

Data collection

Pen bodyweight was determined at placement and at 14, 28, 35 and 42 days of age. Feed intake was also determined by pen. Mortality was weighed and included in the calculation of feed conversion.

One bird per pen at 28 days of age and two birds per pen at 42 days of age at an average bodyweight were weighed individually. Then, they were killed by cervical dislocation, and the gizzard, proventriculus and viscera were harvested. The digesta content was removed from the organs. The empty gizzard and proventriculus were weighed, and the pH of the gizzard and proventriculus contents was determined.

The lengths of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were measured, as well as the total visceral length from gizzard pylorus to distal colon. A 15 cm section of jejunum and ileum was excised for tensile strength measurement. The particle size distribution of the jejunum digesta content was measured.

Celite was added to the finisher diet as an indigestible marker for the determination of AID of energy and nitrogen. At 50 days of age, three birds of average bodyweight from each pen were necropsied to collect the ileal content from 2 cm posterior of Meckel's diverticulum to 2 cm anterior of the ileal-cecal junction. The ileal content was analyzed for moisture, crude protein, acid insoluble ash and gross energy, and the apparent digestibility of energy and nitrogen was calculated.

Digesta retention time was determined at 30 and 45 days of age. After a 12-hour feed withdrawal, six birds per treatment (a total of 18 birds) were put into individual cages. Each bird was orally administered a gelatin capsule that contained 85 mg of chromium oxide as an indigestible marker, and the birds were returned to ad libitum feeding.

Beginning one hour after the gelatin capsule was administered, feces were observed every 15 minutes, and the time of the appearance of clear-green-colored feces was recorded as the passage time.

 

Results

The hammer mill and roller mill are two grinding devices commonly used to reduce the particle size of feed grains. Hammer mill grinding creates a fine particle size with a wide particle size distribution. Roller mill grinding creates a coarser particle size and a more compact or narrower particle size distribution.

By blending hammer mill-ground corn with roller mill-ground corn, a biphasic distribution of particle size is produced, with the intention of having larger particles stimulate gizzard function and smaller particles helping maintain pellet quality and improve digestion and nutrient absorption.

The geometric mean diameter by mass (dgw) of the FC, CC, soybean meal and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) was 294, 1,362, 491 and 414 micrometers, respectively, prior to mixing. As the CC replaced the FC in the diets, the dgw of the mash diets prior to pelleting increased in a stepwise manner from 432 to 640 micrometers, respectively.

For the three experimental diets, replacing 0%, 25% and 50% of the FC with CC resulted in a pellet durability index of 92%, 93% and 90% with a pellet production rate of 522, 454 and 438 kg per hour.

The effects of dietary inclusion of CC on broiler performance are shown in Table 2. There were no significant effects on feed intake. Adding CC to the diet significantly increased bodyweight at 28, 35 and 42 days of age. There was no difference in bodyweight between the birds on diets replacing 25% and 50% of the FC with CC.

In the case of feed conversion, there was a numerical improvement from the addition of CC at 28 days of age. This effect was significant at 35 and 42 days of age. A numerical improvement in feed conversion was noted from replacing 50% of the FC with CC when compared with the 25% replacement.

Table 3 shows the effects of CC inclusion on the gizzard, proventriculus and pancreas. The addition of CC to the diet resulted in a numeric increase in gizzard weight at 28 days of age, which became a significant increase in gizzard weight at 42 days of age. There was a statistically significant increase in the weight of the gizzard relative to bodyweight at 42 days of age.

In the case of the proventriculus, absolute weight was significantly increased by adding CC to the diet when measured at 28 days of age. There was actually a numeric decrease in the weight of the proventriculus associated with the inclusion of CC when measured at 42 days of age. The weight of the proventriculus relative to bodyweight indicated a numeric trend to a reduced proventriculus weight with the inclusion of CC when measured at 42 days of age. This effect was not statistically significant.

When comparing the ratio of gizzard weight to proventriculus weight (G/P ratio), there was a numeric increase in the ratio when measured at 28 days of age, which became a significant effect when measured at 42 days of age.

The weight of the pancreas and pancreas weight relative to bodyweight did not appear to be influenced by the inclusion of CC.

Table 4 shows the effect of CC inclusion on digesta retention time and AID. The digesta retention time was significantly longer when CC was included in the diet when measured at both 30 and 45 days of age. There was no significant difference in the digesta retention time between the inclusion of 25% and 50% CC when measured at 45 days of age.

AID measured at 50 days of age showed a significant increase in the digestibility of both energy and nitrogen when CC was added to the diet. There was no difference noted when replacing 25% or 50% of the FC with CC.

There were no consistent responses noted in regard to digesta pH, intestinal length or tensile strength measurements.

This research paper includes 47 references and is a good place to start a search for information on how particle size affects broiler performance.

 

The Bottom Line

The replacement of fine-ground corn (hammer mill) with coarse-ground corn (roller mill) increased broiler weight and improved feed conversion. These results were supported by observations that the inclusion of coarse-ground corn increased gizzard size, increased digesta retention time and improved ileal digestibility of energy and nitrogen.

In most of the comparisons, the first increment of replacement of the FC with CC (25%) yielded the major portion of the beneficial response.

The diets were pelleted, and that is important.

It is a lot cheaper to grind corn with a roller mill than a hammer mill. This means an extra benefit is that the cost of making the feed is significantly lower.

 

Reference

Xu, Y., C.R. Stark, P.R. Ferket, C.M. Williams, W.J. Pacheco and J. Brake. 2015. Effect of dietary coarsely ground corn on broiler live performance, gastrointestinal tract development, AID of energy and nitrogen and digesta particle size distribution and retention time. Poult. Sci. 94:53-60.

 

1. Ingredient composition and analysis of broiler diets

Ingredient, %

Starter

Grower

Finisher

Corn

50.51

54.19

61.20

Soybean meal, 48%

33.79

23.22

16.07

DDGS

6.00

15.00

15.00

Poultry byproduct meal

2.00

1.00

1.00

Limestone

0.97

0.93

0.95

Dicalcium phosphate, 18%

1.93

1.41

1.46

DL-methionine

0.28

0.13

0.10

L-lysine

0.12

0.22

0.28

L-threonine

0.12

0.12

0.08

Sodium chloride

0.50

0.50

0.50

Vitamin premix

0.05

0.05

0.05

Choline chloride, 60%

0.10

0.10

0.10

Trace mineral premix

0.20

0.20

0.20

Selenium premix

0.10

0.10

0.10

Coccidiostat

0.05

0.05

0.05

Poultry fat

3.23

2.76

2.85

Total

99.95

99.98

99.99

Calculated analysis, %

 

 

 

Metabolizable energy, kcal/g

2.85

2.90

2.95

Protein

23.00

20.00

17.00

Calcium

1.00

0.80

0.80

Available phosphorus

0.50

0.40

0.40

Lysine, total

1.31

1.13

0.97

Methionine+cysteine, total

1.00

0.82

0.71

Analyzed nutrients

 

 

 

Gross energy, kcal/g

3.61

3.71

3.73

Crude protein, %

22.30

21.20

18.00

 

2. Effect of coarse corn inclusion on broiler performance*

 

-CC inclusion level, %-

Feed intake, g

0

25

50

14 days

561

570

561

28 days

2,387

2,406

2,355

35 days

3,653

3,670

3,613

42 days

5,257

5,350

5,154

Bodyweight, g

 

 

 

14 days

474

477

469

28 days

1,621y

1,720x

1,696x

35 days

2,284y

2,400x

2,408x

42 days

2,929b

3,118a

3,059a

Feed conversion

 

 

 

14 days

1.31

1.32

1.33

28 days

1.77

1.73

1.69

35 days

1.82x

1.74y

1.69y

42 days

1.94x

1.86y

1.82y

a,bMeans within a column with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05).

x,yMeans within a column with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.01).

*Coarse-ground corn replacing 0%, 25% or 50% of the fine-ground corn in the diet.

 

3. Effect of coarse corn inclusion on gizzard, proventriculus and pancreas

 

-CC inclusion level, %-

Gizzard

0

25

50

28 days, g

13.47

17.46

17.94

42 days, g

20.96z

25.73y

28.34x

28 days, mg/g BW*

7.81

10.32

9.43

42 days, mg/g BW

6.60z

7.63y

8.75x

Proventriculus

 

 

 

28 days, g

4.31b

5.28a

5.48a

42 days, g

10.26

9.97

8.77

28 days, mg/g BW

2.50

3.18

2.88

42 days, mg/g BW

3.26

2.97

2.71

G/P ratio

 

 

 

28 days, g/g

3.12

3.21

3.28

42 days, g/g

2.11y

2.84x

3.44x

Pancreas

 

 

 

42 days, g

4.61

4.57

4.72

42 days, mg/g BW

1.36

1.30

1.33

a,bMeans within a column with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05).

x,y,zMeans within a column with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.01).

*BW = bodyweight.

 

4. Effect of dietary coarse corn on digesta retention time and apparent ileal digestibility

 

-Digesta retention time, hour-

-AID, 50 days-

CC inclusion, %

30 days

45 days

Energy, %

Nitrogen, %

0

1.58c

3.54y

54.6y

44.0y

25

1.75b

4.52x

61.7x

56.1x

50

1.96a

4.32x

62.8x

56.4x

a,b,cMeans within a column with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05).

x,yMeans within a column with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.01).

 

Volume:87 Issue:05

Broiler breast fillet quality issues studied

Broiler breast fillet quality issues studied

By TIM LUNDEEN

THE global poultry industry has been faced with emerging broiler breast meat quality issues, including conditions known as white striping and woody breast.

Several presentations at last week's International Poultry Science Forum, held in conjunction with the International Production & Processing Expo in Atlanta, Ga., focused on white striping and woody breast research.

According to V.V. Tijare, F. Yang, C. Coon and C.M. Owens of the University of Arkansas and C.Z. Alvarado of Texas A&M University (abstract M36), white striping is characterized by white striations parallel to muscle fibers primarily in breast fillets, while woody breasts are characterized by a hardness of the raw fillets.

Tijare et al. conducted a study to evaluate the effects of white striping and woody breast hardness on meat quality traits in broiler breast fillets. They processed 285 birds at 61 days of age and deboned them four hours postmortem. All fillets were scored for severity of white striping based on Kuttappan et al. (2012). Additionally, fillets were evaluated for their degree of hardness based on tactile evaluation.

Fillets were then scored as hard (WD1), slightly harder (WD2) and hardest (WD3), along with normal (no hardness or striping), moderate and severe white striping.

For the meat quality analyses, 135 fillets were categorized as: normal for both white striping and woody breast (CONT), mild for white striping and woody breast (MILD), severe for white striping and mild for woody breast (SEVWS), severe for woody breast and mild for white striping (SEVWD) and severe for both white striping and woody breast (SEVBOTH).

Fillets were used to assess sarcomere length, gravimetric fragmentation index (GFI), marination uptake, cook loss and Meullenet-Owens razor shear energy values (MORSE) on non-marinated and marinated fillets.

According to Tijare et al., the incidence of woody breast in 285 breast fillets was normal for 3.9%, W1 for 48.1%, W2 for 28.0% and W3 for 20.0%, while the incidence of white striping was normal for 3.9%, moderate for 63.8% and severe for 32.3%. Interestingly, sarcomere length slightly increased (P = 0.09) as the degree of severity of either white striping or woody breast (SEVWS, SEVWD or SEVBOTH) increased compared to CONT fillets, and GFI was not affected (P > 0.05).

As the severity of white striping or woody breast increased, marinade uptake decreased (P < 0.05), and cook loss of non-marinated and marinated fillets both increased (P < 0.05). The MORSE of SEVBOTH fillets was higher (P < 0.05) compared to the other fillets; however, no differences for MORSE of non-marinated fillets were noted.

The results of this study suggest that severe degrees of white striping and woody breast, either together or alone, negatively affect meat quality, the researchers concluded.

 

Protein turnover

In abstract M90, K. Vignale, J.V. Caldas, J. England, N. Boonsinchai, A. Magnuson, E.D. Pollock, C.M. Owens, S. Dridi and C.N. Coon of the University of Arkansas discussed a study that evaluated the effect of white striping on protein turnover and expression of genes related to protein degradation and fatty acid synthesis.

Vignale et al. said the objective was to elucidate why white stripes appear in heavy market broilers.

They allocated 560 one-day-old male broiler chickens to 16 pens, with 35 broilers per pen. Birds were fed under Cobb nutritional recommendations and were raised until 60 days of age.

At day 60, 17 birds (16 infused and one control) were randomly selected and infused with a 150 mM solution of 15N Phen 40% APE (atom percent excess). A small piece of breast muscle tissue was taken for gene expression analysis of various genes, and blood samples were taken from the same birds for insulin and very-low-density lipoprotein plasma level analysis. Each bird was euthanized after 10 minutes of infusion and scored for white striping (normal or severe). Samples of the breast muscle were taken at different layers (ventral, mid and dorsal). A sample of excreta from each bird was also taken.

The researchers reported that no significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in the fractional synthesis rate among birds that scored severe and normal or among samples sites. Muscle insulin receptor expression was significantly higher (P < 0.05) and plasma insulin showed a trend of being higher in the severe birds (P = 0.17), indicating enhanced anabolic conditions, Vignale et al. said.

Detailed results (not shown) of this study suggest that white striping is related to increased muscular protein degradation, Vignale et al. concluded, which is consistent with previous histological reports that showed infiltration of fat through fat deposition or fat mobilization.

Further studies are needed to better understand why birds with severe white striping are degrading more muscular protein and mobilizing more fat, the researchers added.

 

Feed restriction

Recently, increased incidences of white striping, woody breast and idiopathic necrosis of the breast fillet have been observed in multiple commercial broiler strains, K. Meloche, S. Bilgili and W. Dozier of Auburn University noted in abstract M91.

Although numerous anecdotal reports indicate that these issues are associated with growth rate, Meloche et al. said limited formal research has been conducted to investigate this relationship. Therefore, they conducted an experiment to determine if myopathies of the Pectoralis major muscles are influenced by differences in growth rate achieved through quantitative feed restriction.

Male broiler chicks of a high-yielding commercial strain were placed 25 birds per pen into 28 pens that were equipped with plastic slats to prevent coprophagy. Meloche et al. noted that all birds received identical starter (days 1-10), grower (days 11-32), finisher (days 33-42) and withdrawal (days 43-50) diets that were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations from the primary breeder.

Each pen of birds was randomly assigned to one of four pair-feeding programs: (1) ad libitum, (2) 95% of treatment 1 intake, (3) 90% of treatment 1 intake or (4) 85% of treatment 1 intake. Each treatment had seven replicate pens.

Feed intakes and mortality were recorded daily, and individual bodyweights were recorded at 10, 31, 42 and 49 days of age. Blood samples were collected from four birds per pen at 31, 41 and 48 days of age and were subsequently analyzed for plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

At 32, 43 and 50 days of age, four birds per pen were euthanized for necropsy, and the right breast fillet of each bird was visually scored for white striping, woody breast and idiopathic necrosis.

According to Meloche et al., feed intake, bodyweight gain and mortality were reduced (P < 0.01) with decreasing feed allocation. No differences in feed conversion ratio (unadjusted for common bodyweight) were observed.

At all ages evaluated, the severity of woody breast, white striping and idiopathic necrosis was reduced with decreasing feed allocation (P < 0.05), Meloche et al. reported. Plasma CK and LDH levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in birds with woody breast at 32 and 41 days of age.

Meloche et al. said these results show the effect of quantitative feed restriction on broiler growth performance and breast muscle myopathies. Practical feeding programs that might reduce the incidence of breast myopathies while maintaining optimal performance require further evaluation, they concluded.

Volume:87 Issue:05

Froman lists trade priorities

Froman lists trade priorities

ACCORDING to U.S. Trade Representative ambassador Michael Froman, the Administration's top trade priorities are to secure trade promotion authority (TPA) with bipartisan support as well as make significant progress toward successfully concluding the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP).

Froman testified before the Senate Finance Committee and House Ways & Means Committee last Tuesday to present USTR's yearly trade outlook, although he spent much of his time outlining the need for fast track authority — or TPA —for the President and progress on TPP.

Currency manipulation was also a major topic of discussion but something Froman said will not likely be addressed within the TPP discussions.

"This will be a critical year for trade," he said, noting that a robust discussion is needed on opening markets and raising labor and environmental standards.

The TPP negotiations, which include the U.S., Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam, are drawing to a conclusion, with the latest round of talks occurring last week.

Froman testified that the TPP talks could be concluded in just a "small number of months" and said recent discussions have focused on market access.

Much time has been devoted to Japan's requests regarding its agricultural markets, but Canada also has refused to increase market access for U.S. dairy, poultry and eggs.

"We are making good progress on market access, but we still have work to do. I'm confident we're making good progress and hoping to close out a good package soon," he said.

Froman added that USTR continues to work with stakeholders such as commodity groups to ensure that the final TPP package addresses their concerns and creates real value.

With Japan, he said for the last year, the agricultural negotiations have centered on the nearly 1,800 tariff lines of products — including what it deems "sanctuary products" — that Japan wants extra protection on within a TPP agreement.

The goal, Froman said, is to get an agreement that all products will be covered in the TPP with Japan while going line by line to maximize the full tariff elimination and create as much meaningful access as possible on each one.

 

Support for TPA

In separate statements, the National Chicken Council, National Cattlemen's Beef Assn. (NCBA) and National Pork Producers Council (NPPC) each made a case for the need to provide the President with TPA.

NCBA president Bob McCan said while the final terms of TPP are still far from concluded, "TPP could give the United States a stronger foothold in the growing Asian and Pacific Rim markets."

While TPA will empower U.S. trade officials to pursue and finalize a number of different trade negotiations, NPPC said TPP is of paramount importance to U.S. pork producers.

The benefits from TPP are expected to far exceed the benefits that have resulted from past trade deals and will represent, according to Iowa State University economist Dermot Hayes, "the most important commercial opportunity ever for U.S. pork producers."

"The U.S. pork industry is the poster child for expanded trade," NPPC president Howard Hill said. "As a result of trade agreements, our exports have increased 1,550% in value and 1,268% in volume since 1989, the year the U.S. implemented the (free trade agreement) with Canada and started opening international markets for value-added agriculture products. Pork producers and U.S. agriculture are dependent on export markets, so NPPC is going to fight tooth and nail to get TPA passed."

For poultry, a successful TPP conclusion would expand U.S. chicken exports by at least $500 million annually, and possibly more, if restrictive market access measures, sanitary/veterinary issues and other non-tariff trade barriers can be addressed.

Furthermore, if the European Union drops its unscientific trade barriers on chicken, the trade deal with the EU could benefit U.S. poultry exports by more than $600 million annually.

Volume:87 Issue:05