Periodic DDGS use does not affect pig growth

Periodic DDGS use does not affect pig growth

*John H. Goihl is president of Agri-Nutrition Services Inc., Shakopee, Minn. To expedite answers to questions concerning this article, please direct inquiries to Feedstuffs, Bottom Line of Nutrition, 5810 W. 78th St., Suite 200, Bloomington, Minn. 55439, or email [email protected]

THE increased use of alternative feed ingredients often results in additional ingredients being used to formulate swine diets.

Also, fluctuations in the pricing and availability of alternative ingredients may make their inclusion in swine diets possible only on an intermittent basis in order to capture the economic advantages that result in abrupt changes in diet composition.

Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) are a common alternative feed ingredient in swine diets. Many research trials have been conducted to determine the effects of various levels of DDGS in grower/finisher diets on growth performance and carcass characteristics. The pigs' growth performance and carcass trait responses to abrupt changes in the inclusion level of DDGS in the diet, or to DDGS that differs in quality, have not been studied.

Swine researchers A.M. Hilibrands, L.J. Johnston, K.M. McClelland, R.B. Cox, S.K. Baidoo, L.W.O. Souza and G.C. Shurson at the University of Minnesota conducted two experiments to evaluate the effects of continuously feeding a diet containing 40% DDGS or intermittently feeding diets containing 20% or 40% DDGS on growth performance and carcass quality of grower/finisher pigs. Also, DDGS with differing concentrations of standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids was evaluated.

The pigs were housed in an environmentally controlled grower/finisher barn with a temperature of approximately 20 degrees C. Each totally slatted floor pen was equipped with two nipple waterers and a four-space feeder.

Diets were formulated on an SID amino acid basis and met or exceeded National Research Council requirements for grower/finisher pigs. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water.

Table 1 summarizes the DDGS analysis used in both experiments.

 

Experiment 1

Experiment 1 utilized 216 pigs with an average initial bodyweight of approximately 51 kg. Nine pigs (five barrows and four gilts) were assigned to each pen, and each pen was assigned to one of four treatments (Table 2). The following three diets were formulated for the three-phase feeding program:

* Diet 1 -- corn/soybean meal;

* Diet 2 -- corn/soybean meal with 20% DDGS, and

* Diet 3 -- corn/soybean meal with 40% DDGS.

Bodyweights of individual pigs and pen feed disappearance were measured every other week. Pigs were all harvested on a single day, after the 72-day feeding period, with an average bodyweight of 112 kg. Various carcass measurements were taken after harvest. Two pigs from each pen that were closest to the mean pen bodyweight were selected preharvest for fatty acid analysis of back fat.

Table 3 summarizes the growth performance and carcass quality measurements of the pigs on experiment 1.

The researchers provided the following interpretations of these results:

* Growth performance and carcass quality were not affected for pigs on treatment 2 compared to pigs on treatment 1.

* Pigs on treatment 3 exhibited no difference in growth performance or carcass quality compared to pigs on treatment 1.

* Pigs on treatment 4 had reduced hot carcass weight, along with periodic reductions in daily feed intake.

 

Experiment 2

Experiment 2 utilized 324 pigs with an average bodyweight of 33.2 kg. Pigs were allotted nine per pen (four barrows and five gilts, or five barrows and four gilts) in 36 pens. Pigs were fed one of six treatments (Table 4), resulting in six pens per treatment.

In this experiment, three diets were formulated on an SID amino basis: diet 1 was corn/soybean meal, diet 2 was corn/soybean meal with 40% DDGS formulated as low SID and diet 3 was corn/soybean meal with 40% DDGS formulated as high SID. The diets were fed in four phases: 33-50 kg, 50-70 kg, 70-90 kg and 90-120 kg.

Bodyweights of individual pigs and pen feed disappearance were measured every other week. The pigs were harvested on a single day after a 98-day feeding period, at an average bodyweight of 120 kg.

Loin-eye area and back-fat thickness were measured five days prior to harvest, and other carcass measurements were obtained at the time of harvest.

Table 5 summarizes the growth performance and carcass quality measurements of experiment 2. The researchers provided the following interpretations of the results:

* The final bodyweight and average daily gain were less for pigs on treatments 2 and 6 compared to pigs on treatment 1.

* Pigs fed treatment 2 tended to exhibit a decrease in average daily feed intake compared to pigs fed treatment 1.

* The efficiency of bodyweight gain was not affected by dietary treatments.

* Pigs fed treatment 2 had decreased average daily gain and average daily feed intake compared to pigs fed treatment 1.

* Diet 3 was able to partially reduce some of the reductions observed in growth performance when feeding 40% DDGS.

* The periodic inclusion and removal of 40% DDGS from diets of finishing pigs did not adversely affect overall growth performance, regardless of the amino acid digestibility of the DDGS fed.

* Carcass quality was not affected by treatment.

These results are in agreement with previous research findings where hot carcass weight and dressing percent decreased as levels of DDGS in the diet increased.

The results from this experiment suggest that voluntary feed intake of pigs is affected by abrupt dietary changes, but if given a chance, pigs are able to adapt and even compensate for the reductions in average daily feed intake.

In both experiments, the fatty acid composition reflected the DDGS level in the diet, and the composition of the diet consumed in the three to four weeks immediately preceding harvest had more influence on fatty acid composition of the back fat than the composition of diets consumed throughout the earlier portions of the grower/finisher period.

 

The Bottom Line

These two experiments demonstrated that the periodic inclusion and removal of 40% DDGS from grower/finisher diets did not adversely affect growth performance or carcass quality, regardless of the SID amino acid digestibility of DDGS.

 

Reference

J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 91, No. 1.

 

1. DDGS analysis from both experiments

 

 

-Experiment 2-

 

Experiment 1

High SID

Low SID

Dry matter, %

88.2

88.4

90.5

Crude protein, %

29.1

27.8

27.2

Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg

3,467

3,400

3,280

Crude fat, %

10.4

9.9

10.5

Acid detergent fiber, %

12.4

14.6

16.0

Available phosphorus, %

0.61

0.51

0.41

SID lysine, %

0.70

0.58

0.41

SID threonine, %

0.71

0.70

0.69

SID tryptophan, %

0.16

0.16

0.14

SID methionine, %

0.39

0.49

0.42

 

2. Treatment descriptions for experiment 1

Treatment

Description

1

Diet 1 fed continuously

2

Diet 2 fed continuously

3

Diets 1 and 2 alternated every two weeks

4

Diets 1 and 3 alternated every two weeks

 

3. Growth performance and carcass quality measurements from experiment 1

 

-Treatment-

Criteria

1

2

3

4

Number of pens

6

6

6

6

Number of pigs

53

54

53

54

Number of carcass measurements

49

47

47

45

Initial bodyweight, kg

51.3

51.3

51.3

51.4

Final bodyweight, kg

112.2

112.2

113.0

110.6

Avg. daily gain, kg

0.87

0.87

0.88

0.85

Avg. daily feed intake, kg

2.70

2.75

2.71

2.63

Gain:feed

0.323

0.317

0.325

0.322

10th-rib back-fat depth, mm

19.3

20.1

20.4

19.8

Loin-eye area, sq. cm

48.8

48.3

48.2

47.6

Hot carcass weight, kg

83.8

83.6

84.3

81.1

Carcass lean, %

54.4

54.0

53.8

54.2

Dressing %

74.8

74.6

74.6

73.8

 

4. Experiment 2 treatment descriptions

Treatment

Description

1

Diet 1 fed continuously

2

Diet 2 fed continuously

3

Diet 3 fed continuously

4

Diets 2 and 1 fed alternating by phase

5

Diets 3 and 1 fed alternating by phase

6

Diets 2 and 3 fed alternating by phase

 

5. Growth performance and carcass quality measurements from experiment 2

 

-Treatment-

Criteria

1

2

3

4

5

6

Number of pens

6

6

6

6

6

6

Number of pigs

54

54

54

54

54

54

Number of carcass measurements

54

54

54

54

54

54

Initial bodyweight, kg

33.2

33.2

33.2

33.2

33.2

33.2

Final bodyweight, kg

121.5

115.9

118.3

121.6

123.0

117.8

Avg. daily gain, kg

0.92

0.86

0.89

0.92

0.93

0.88

Avg. daily feed intake, kg

2.70

2.57

2.73

2.72

2.78

2.68

Gain:feed

0.34

0.34

0.33

0.34

0.34

0.33

Lean gain, kg/day

0.15

0.14

0.14

0.15

0.15

0.14

10th-rib back-fat, mm

21.3

18.9

18.1

19.9

20.4

19.8

Loin-eye area, sq. cm

44.7

40.4

42.7

44.7

45.3

40.6

Hot carcass weight, kg

93.3

87.2

89.4

92.3

94.4

88.5

Carcass lean, %

51.8

51.3

51.3

52.1

52.1

52.3

Dressing %

76.2

74.7

75.1

75.8

76.0

74.6

 

Volume:85 Issue:16

Hide comments

Comments

  • Allowed HTML tags: <em> <strong> <blockquote> <br> <p>

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
Publish